# Temperature conversion

### Select the unit you wish to convert from

Temperature is a fundamental aspect of our daily lives, and being able to convert between different temperature units is essential for various applications. The most commonly used temperature scales are Celsius (°C), Fahrenheit (°F), and Kelvin (K). Celsius is widely used in most countries, while Fahrenheit is primarily used in the United States. Kelvin is commonly used in scientific and engineering fields.

Understanding temperature conversions is crucial for a wide range of applications, including weather forecasting, cooking, scientific research, and industrial processes. Being able to convert between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin allows for effective communication and accurate measurements across different regions and fields.

### Celsius (°C)

Celsius (°C) is a unit of measurement commonly used to express temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who first proposed the Celsius scale in 1742. The Celsius scale is widely used around the world, particularly in scientific and everyday applications.

The Celsius scale is based on the concept of dividing the range between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 equal intervals. On this scale, the freezing point of water is defined as 0°C, while the boiling point of water is defined as 100°C at standard atmospheric pressure. This makes the Celsius scale particularly convenient for measuring temperatures in everyday life, as it aligns with the freezing and boiling points of water, which are important reference points for many practical purposes.

The Celsius scale is used in many countries for weather forecasts, temperature measurements in homes and buildings, and scientific research. However, it is worth noting that the Celsius scale is not the only temperature scale in use. The Fahrenheit scale, commonly used in the United States, is another widely recognized scale for measuring temperature.

### Fahrenheit (°F)

Fahrenheit (°F) is a unit of measurement commonly used to express temperature in the United States and a few other countries. It was developed by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in the early 18th century. The Fahrenheit scale is based on the freezing and boiling points of water, with 32°F representing the freezing point and 212°F representing the boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure.

One of the main advantages of the Fahrenheit scale is its ability to provide a more precise representation of temperature changes in everyday weather conditions. The smaller degree increments on the Fahrenheit scale allow for a more detailed understanding of temperature fluctuations, which can be particularly useful in meteorology and for everyday temperature monitoring. Additionally, the Fahrenheit scale is often considered more intuitive for individuals accustomed to its use, as it aligns with common temperature ranges experienced in daily life.

The Fahrenheit scale is not widely used internationally, as most countries have adopted the Celsius (°C) scale as the standard unit of temperature measurement. Celsius is considered more scientifically consistent and easier to convert between units, making it the preferred scale for scientific research, global weather reporting, and international trade.

### Kelvin (K)

Kelvin (K) is a unit of measurement used to quantify temperature in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after the Scottish physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin, who made significant contributions to the field of thermodynamics. Kelvin is considered an absolute temperature scale, meaning it starts at absolute zero, the theoretical point at which all molecular motion ceases. Because of this, the symbol for Kelvin is simply a "K" and not degrees K (°K).

The Kelvin scale is based on the Celsius scale, with the same increments. However, unlike Celsius, which sets the freezing point of water at 0 degrees and the boiling point at 100 degrees, Kelvin sets absolute zero at 0K. This makes Kelvin a more suitable scale for scientific calculations and measurements involving temperature, as it eliminates negative values and allows for direct proportionality between temperature and other physical properties.

Kelvin is widely used in scientific research, particularly in fields such as physics, chemistry, and engineering. It is especially valuable in situations where precise measurements and calculations are required, such as in the study of gases, thermodynamics, and the behavior of matter at extremely low temperatures.

### Other units of temperature

Other units of temperature include the Rankine, Delisle, Newton, Réaumur, and Rømer scales

The Rankine scale is an absolute temperature scale commonly used in engineering and thermodynamics. It is similar to the Fahrenheit scale, but with zero degrees Rankine being absolute zero. The Rankine scale is often used in conjunction with the Kelvin scale for scientific calculations.

The Delisle scale, named after the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, is a temperature scale where the freezing point of water is set at 150 degrees and the boiling point at 0 degrees. This scale was widely used in Russia until the adoption of the Celsius scale.

The Newton scale, named after Sir Isaac Newton, is a temperature scale where the freezing point of water is set at 0 degrees and the boiling point at 33 degrees. This scale is rarely used today, but it was once popular in the scientific community.

The Réaumur scale, named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, is a temperature scale where the freezing point of water is set at 0 degrees and the boiling point at 80 degrees. This scale was widely used in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in France and Germany.

The Rømer scale, named after Ole Rømer, is a temperature scale where the freezing point of water is set at 7.5 degrees and the boiling point at 60 degrees. This scale was commonly used in Denmark and other parts of Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.

### What is the relationship between temperature and thermal energy?

Temperature and thermal energy are closely related concepts in the field of thermodynamics. Temperature refers to the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, while thermal energy refers to the total kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance.

The relationship between temperature and thermal energy can be understood through the concept of heat transfer. When two objects at different temperatures come into contact, heat flows from the object with higher temperature to the object with lower temperature. This heat transfer occurs until both objects reach thermal equilibrium, where their temperatures are equal.

The amount of heat transferred between two objects depends on their temperature difference and the thermal energy of the objects. The greater the temperature difference, the greater the heat transfer. Similarly, the greater the thermal energy of an object, the greater its temperature.

It is important to note that temperature and thermal energy are not the same thing. While temperature measures the average kinetic energy of particles, thermal energy measures the total kinetic energy. For example, a cup of boiling water and a swimming pool filled with lukewarm water may have the same temperature, but the swimming pool contains a significantly larger amount of thermal energy due to its greater volume.