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Astronomers used trigonometry to calculate the distance to stars long before the term parsec was coined, but the new unit made it easier to conceptualise unfathomable distances.

A parsec is the distance from the sun to an astronomical object which has a parallax angle of one arcsecond (1/3600 of a degree). The parallax angle is found by measuring the parallax motion (or apparent movement of a star relative to stable, more distant stars) when the star is observed from opposite sides of the Sun (an interval of six months on Earth). The parallax angle is obtained by halving the angular difference in measurements.

Once the parallax angle is established you can calculate the distance to a star using trigonometry, because we know Earth’s distance from the Sun. The distance from the Sun of a body with a parallax angle of 1 arcsecond was thus defined as a unit and, thanks to Turner, named the parsec.

With the parsec defined, deriving and describing huge distances became easy, since a distance i

A lightyear is the distance that light travels in one year. Since there are various definitions for the length of a year, there are correspondingly slightly different values for a lightyear. One lightyear corresponds to about 9.461e15 m, 5.879e12 mi, or 63239.7 AU, or 0.3066 pc.